two studies, two competitions

two studies, two competitions
(shuangxue shuangbi huodong)
Social policy
The ‘two studies, two competitions’ activities were formally launched in 1989 as a distinctive Chinese variant of gender and development. The initiative built upon earlier grassroots work of the All-China Women’s Federation in promoting the role of rural women in economic development, especially work to encourage the courtyard economy (tingyuan jingji) conducted in the mid 1980s. The ‘two studies, two competitions’ provided a structure for linking this work of the Women’s Federations with the support and resources of those government departments connected to the rural economy through the institution of ‘two studies, two competitions coordinating groups’ (shaungxue shuangbi xietiao zuzhi) at all levels of government. The goal is to position rural women in the mainstream of rural economic development, to the benefit of both women and economic development.
Literally, the ‘two studies, two competitions’ consist of adult basic education, technical training, competition among local women in achieving economic success and recognition, and competition in making social contributions. As implemented, the core of the programme has been short-term technical training oriented towards the market. A longer-term goal has been improvement in women’s quality, with an initial focus on literacy training and a later focus (from the second five-year phase, beginning in 1994) on technical training. This approach has continued familiar practices of nurturing and promoting models of success, while also assisting less-advantaged women to access training and resources. It departs from earlier initiatives in its use of state structures to promote women’s involvement in the market.
Judd, Ellen (2002). The Chinese Women’s Movement Between State and Market. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Encyclopedia of contemporary Chinese culture. . 2011.

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