two studies, two competitions


two studies, two competitions
(shuangxue shuangbi huodong)
Social policy
The ‘two studies, two competitions’ activities were formally launched in 1989 as a distinctive Chinese variant of gender and development. The initiative built upon earlier grassroots work of the All-China Women’s Federation in promoting the role of rural women in economic development, especially work to encourage the courtyard economy (tingyuan jingji) conducted in the mid 1980s. The ‘two studies, two competitions’ provided a structure for linking this work of the Women’s Federations with the support and resources of those government departments connected to the rural economy through the institution of ‘two studies, two competitions coordinating groups’ (shaungxue shuangbi xietiao zuzhi) at all levels of government. The goal is to position rural women in the mainstream of rural economic development, to the benefit of both women and economic development.
Literally, the ‘two studies, two competitions’ consist of adult basic education, technical training, competition among local women in achieving economic success and recognition, and competition in making social contributions. As implemented, the core of the programme has been short-term technical training oriented towards the market. A longer-term goal has been improvement in women’s quality, with an initial focus on literacy training and a later focus (from the second five-year phase, beginning in 1994) on technical training. This approach has continued familiar practices of nurturing and promoting models of success, while also assisting less-advantaged women to access training and resources. It departs from earlier initiatives in its use of state structures to promote women’s involvement in the market.
Judd, Ellen (2002). The Chinese Women’s Movement Between State and Market. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
ELLEN R.JUDD

Encyclopedia of contemporary Chinese culture. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • National University of Advanced Legal Studies — Established 2005 Type National University Chancellor Chief Justice of High Court of Kerala …   Wikipedia

  • Maggie L. Walker Governor's School for Government and International Studies — Address 1000 North Lombardy Street Richmond, Virginia 23220 …   Wikipedia

  • Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies — See also SAIS international campuses in Bologna, Italy and Nanjing, China The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) SAIS Logo Established 1943 Type Private …   Wikipedia

  • Chess — This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess (disambiguation). Chess From left to right: a whit …   Wikipedia

  • Gyeongju — 경주 …   Wikipedia

  • feminism — in China has been intricately intertwined with both philosophy and political ideology. As early as the Zhou dynasty, men and women were associated respectively with notions of yang and yin in a philosophy that organized the world into polarized… …   Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture

  • women’s quality — (nüren suzhi) Political/social concept ‘Women’s quality’ emerged as a major issue in the 1980s with the decision of the All China Women’s Federation to emphasize raising women’s quality as the cornerstone of their strategy to raise the status of… …   Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture

  • chess — chess1 /ches/, n. a game played by two persons, each with 16 pieces, on a chessboard. [1150 1200; ME < OF esches, pl. of eschec CHECK1] chess2 /ches/, n., pl. chess, chesses. one of the planks forming the roadway of a floating bridge. [1425 75;… …   Universalium

  • china — /chuy neuh/, n. 1. a translucent ceramic material, biscuit fired at a high temperature, its glaze fired at a low temperature. 2. any porcelain ware. 3. plates, cups, saucers, etc., collectively. 4. figurines made of porcelain or ceramic material …   Universalium

  • China — /chuy neuh/, n. 1. People s Republic of, a country in E Asia. 1,221,591,778; 3,691,502 sq. mi. (9,560,990 sq. km). Cap.: Beijing. 2. Republic of. Also called Nationalist China. a republic consisting mainly of the island of Taiwan off the SE coast …   Universalium


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.